The North of France under the Occupation

The two most northern departments on French territory, Nord and Pas-de-Calais, share together with the department of Ardennes, a particular situation in the history of 20th century France: they were the only departments to experience two German occupations: in 1914-1918 and then in 1940-1944. This fact is little known outside these regions and comparative studies show that the first occupation was no less harsh than the second with, in particular, forced labour imposed upon civilians and the deportation of hostages.

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